The American Community Survey (ACS) five-year estimates are created by the United States Census Bureau and
provide detailed social, economic, demographic and housing data for areas as small as census tracts.
The ACS uses geographical units called Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs) for their geographic level of analysis.
Although PUMAs are built on census tracts and counties, a single PUMA may contain parts of multiple counties or include
several whole counties. The Census Bureau has a crosswalk that allocates the proportion of individuals within each PUMA
that belong to each individual county. This crosswalk was used to report information gathered from ACS, ensuring that
the correct proportion was assigned to each county.
For this data guide, ACS data were used to report demographic indicators, including population by age, sex,
race/ethnicity, population below 100% of the federal poverty level (FPL), median household income, and
education and employment levels. ACS data were also used to identify the percentage of the population ages
18–64 without health insurance. The education levels and rates were calculated based on individuals ages 25
and older. All other calculations were based on the total population. Additionally, all information presented
was based on place of residence.
ACS data were also used to calculate the workforce employment information, including the number working in the individual employment sectors,
percent of the occupation or profession ages 50 and over, percent female, and percent of underrepresented minorities (URMs),
including individuals who are Hispanic/Latino, Black/African American, and Native Americans/Alaskan Natives. Please note that for a few
occupations in certain regions, no ACS information was available due to small numbers, even though there were licensed professionals in those
regions. Additionally, because of the low number of podiatrists in the ACS, their counts by county and by the different regions were taken from
the Area Health Resource File (AHRF) for 2012–2013.